Thanh Nguyen

7:05 pm.
I was late. The graduation had started at 7:00 pm. The auditorium was quite as the church leader was speaking. I went to second floor and sat  with my friends. It’s boring, so I played game with my phones.
The principal came on stage and spoke something about “bring honor to the Lord…. avoid temptations….. Jesus is always with you…..”.
“Christian stuffs”, I thought to myself and kept playing game.
7:35 pm.
Mrs. Roger (the vice-president) represented a short video about the seniors. It was some photos about how fun and amazing and exciting their last schoolyear was. Nothing was interesting, except some funny moments of the pictures.
The moment that everyone was waiting for came. The seniors came on the stage one by one and were given a graduation degree. The
audience clapped loudly and excitedly. Then the seniors’ relatives cheered and smiled happily. After that, we all went home.


Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Nowadays, many cities have to deal with a controversial problem that whether a city should preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings. I believe that different people will have different opinion. According to my experience, I think we should preserve the old, historic buildings instead of destroy them. I would like to use three following reasons to support my answer.

First, the old, historic buildings are the witnesses of history. Although these buildings would take up a lot of spaces, they are the only evidences left in a city which can tell us about the city’s history and provide many valuable experiences. These buildings could tell people what happened in the past and what was the past like. From that, people could gain knowledge and experience to contribute to the modern society better.

Second, the old, historic buildings represent history, so they could be used for educational purposes. Children can learn history in class, but learning history in a historic structure can provide them a better and more appropriate environment to study, which make children much easier and happier in learning history. It is necessary for children to know about the past, so they can understand better about the modern society.

Third, the preserved buildings would offer important clues for archeologists to study the past. Archeologists could find many antiques in these buildings, which could give them very valuable information. It is more advantageous to maintain the preserved buildings well than to destroy them and build new ones.

In conclusion, the old, historic buildings should be preserved for the reasons above. First is that they are the witness of the past, then they could teach students many things and last they are the important clues of archeologists.

STOCKHOLM (AFP) – Một cậu bé I-Rắc 16 tuổi sống nhập cư ở nước Thụy Điển đã giải được một bài toán đố nan giải từng thách thức nhiều chuyên gia toán học suốt 300 qua, cơ quan truyền thông Thụy Điển đã đưa tin vào thứ Năm.

Trong vòng 4 tháng, Mohamed Altoumaimi đã tìm được công thức để giải nghĩa và đơn giản hóa chuỗi số Bernouilli, một dãy các phép tính được đặt tên theo nhà toán học Jacob Bernouilli thế kỷ 17, nhật báo Dagens Nyheter đã tường thuật.

Altoumaimi, cậu bé đã đến cư trú tại Thụy Điển 6 năm về trước, nói rằng các giáo viên ở trường trung học trong Falun đã không nghĩ rằng công thức mà cậu viết ra thực sự đúng.

“Lúc đầu khi em đưa công thức giải bài toán nay đến các giáo viên, không ai nghĩ rằng công thức này sẽ thực sự giải được bài toán ấy”  Altoumaimi nói với phóng viên báo Falu Kuriren

Sau đó, cậu ta đã tiếp xúc với các giáo sư tại trường đại học Uppsala, một trong những trường hàng đầu tại Thụy Điển, để nhờ họ kiểm tra công trình về chuỗi Bernouilli của cậu.

Sau khi xem xét những cuốn tập ghi chép của cậu, các giáo sư nhận ra rằng công trình của cậu đã đúng và quyết định cho cậu một chỗ học tập nghiên cứu tại trường đại học Uppsala.

Nhưng hiện nay, Altoumaimi đang tập trung vào việc học hành ở trường của cậu và dự định học các lớp toán và lý nâng cao vào hè năm nay.

“Em muốn là một nhà nghiên cứu môn Vật lý hay Toán học, em thực sự thích những môn học này. Nhưng em cần phải cải thiện thêm môn Tiếng anh và các môn về Khoa học xã hội” cậu ta nói với phóng viên báo Falu Kuriren.

STOCKHOLM (AFP) – Một cậu bé Irắc 16 tuổi sống nhập cư trong Thụy Điển đã giải được một câu đố toán học từng thách thức nhiều nhà toán học khoảng hơn 300 năm, hệ thống truyền thông Thụy Điển đã tường thuật vào thứ Sáu.

Chỉ trong 4 tháng, Mohamed Altoumaimi đã tìm được một công thức để giải thích và đơn giản hóa cái gọi là dãy số Bernoulli, một dãy của các kết quả tính toán được đặt tên theo nhà toán học Thụy Sỹ thế kỷ 17 Jacob Bernoulli, nhật báo Dagens Nyheter diễn đạt.

Altoumaimi, cậu bé đã đến Thụy Điển 8 năm về trước, nói rằng những người thầy giáo ở trường trung học trong Falun, trung tâm Thụy Điển, đã không bị thuyết phục bởi thành quả của cậu ta lúc đầu.

“Khi lần đầu tiên tôi cho những giáo viên xem công thức, không ai trong số họ nghĩ rằng nó sẽ thực sự giải được bài toán” Altoumaimi kể cho báo Falu Kuriren.

Sau đó cậu ta đã tiếp cận dược với các giáo sư ở trường đại học  Uppsala, một trong những cơ quan đứng đầu Thụy Điển, để nhờ họ kiểm tra thành quả của cậu ta.

Sau khi coi qua sổ tay của cậu ta, các giáo sư nhận thấy rằng thành quả đấy quả thực đã đúng và cho cậu ta một vị trí trong Uppsala.

Lúc này, Altoumaimi đang tập trung cho việc học trong trường và dự định học những lớp hè chuyên cao Toán và Lý trong năm nay.

“Tôi muốn là một nhà nghiên cứu Toán và Lý; tôi thực sự thích những môn học này. Nhưng tôi phải cải thiện môn Anh văn và Khoa học xã hội,” cậu ta nói với báo Falu Kuriren.

Posted on: May 31, 2009

Iraq-born teen cracks maths puzzle

STOCKHOLM (AFP) – A 16-year-old Iraqi immigrant living in Sweden has cracked a maths puzzle that has stumped experts for more than 300 years, Swedish media reported on Thursday.

In just four months, Mohamed Altoumaimi has found a formula to explain and simplify the so-called Bernoulli numbers, a sequence of calculations named after the 17th century Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli, the Dagens Nyheter daily said.

Altoumaimi, who came to Sweden six years ago, said teachers at his high school in Falun, central Sweden were not convinced about his work at first.

“When I first showed it to my teachers, none of them thought the formula I had written down really worked,” Altoumaimi told the Falu Kuriren newspaper.

He then got in touch with professors at Uppsala University, one of Sweden’s top institutions, to ask them to check his work.

After going through his notebooks, the professors found his work was indeed correct and offered him a place in Uppsala.

But for now, Altoumaimi is focusing on his school studies and plans to take summer classes in advanced mathematics and physics this year.

“I wanted to be a researcher in physics or mathematics; I really like those subjects. But I have to improve in English and social sciences,” he told the Falu Kuriren.

You could see how people use simple word to write a book review:

A Song for Cambodia

By Michelle Lord

Illustrations by Shino Arihara

Lee & Low, 2008

Hardcover, 32 pages, $16.95

By Josephine Bridges

In a country of sugar palms, whispering grasses, and bright sunshine, there lived a boy named Arn. His home was filled with the sweet sounds of music and laughter.” So began the life of Cambodian musician and activist Arn Chorn-Pond, but the Khmer Rouge changed all that, separating Arn from his parents, grandparents, and 11 brothers and sisters. “I come from a family of performers,” he says in the afterword to A Song for Cambodia. “I am the only one left.”

It is a terrible shame young people must learn their world is filled with such suffering as the Khmer Rouge inflicted on the population of Cambodia — many of them children — three decades ago, but Michelle Lord’s excellent book is a tale of triumph as well as tragedy. Arn Chorn-Pond could have achieved heroic status simply by surviving those horrifying times. In fact, he has done much more.

Sound is always in the background of A Song for Cambodia. The explosions that preceded the arrival of soldiers in 1975 “crackled through the air like a thousand New Year’s noisemakers.” Forbidden to speak as they worked from sunrise to midnight in the rice paddies, Arn and the other children heard only “the shouts of soldiers threatening young workers and the rumbles of Arn’s empty belly.” Apparently even the soldiers yearned for music, and asked for volunteers to join a group that would play “revolutionary and marching songs.” This was a far cry from the joyful music of his home, but Arn learned to play the khim, a wooden string instrument. He “knew he must play his best for his life depended on pleasing the soldiers.”

“When he was about twelve years old, South Vietnam invaded Cambodia,” and the soldiers sent Arn and other boys to the border to fight. Arn escaped, following “the chattering sounds of a monkey family” through the jungle, picking up “the food they dropped, knowing it would be safe to eat.”

For three months the boy put as much distance as he could between himself and the sounds of explosions. When he collapsed with a fever, he had no idea how close he was to Thailand, where he awakened in a refugee camp. Although he was free from Khmer Rouge soldiers, Arn was still hungry and afraid and “longed for the comforting music of his khim.”

Arn was too weak to get himself to safety when a flood swept through the camp. Fortunately for all of us, an American volunteer, Reverend Peter Pond, saved the boy’s life and, after developing a relationship based on “hand signals and smiles,” decided to adopt him. Though he was safe once again, Arn’s “heart still ached with the loss of his family in Cambodia.” How he dealt with that loss, immediately and in the years to come, is only one of the reasons to read A Song for Cambodia. Others include Shino Arihara’s understated illustrations that guide the reader through imagining the unimaginable, and the photograph of the smiling Arn Chorn-Pond in front of the house he is building in Cambodia.

Like its protagonist, A Song for Cambodia is a treasure.

Here’s my new body paragraph:

First, a human activity that damages the Earth is deforestation. Deforestation destroys a huge area of forest every year. The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation. Furthermore, deforestation also cause the loss of habitats for million of plants and animals and lead some of them to extinction. Obviously, human activities have made many negative effects to the environment and our planet.

phê bình đoạn trên:

Câu dưới đây chẳng có gì gọi là specific (cụ thể):

“First, a human activity that damages the Earth is deforestation. Deforestation destroys a huge area of forest every year. The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation. Furthermore, deforestation also cause the loss of habitats for million of plants and animals and lead some of them to extinction. Obviously, human activities have made many negative effects to the environment and our planet. “

ý chính của nó là: deforestation

ý phụ của nó là gì?

vì lý do gì mà human activity làm chuyện deforestation?

việc làm gì của human activity gây deforestation?

Phải viết tối thiểu 2, 3 câu văn nói rõ ra: các hoạt động gì (?)  của con người gây ra deforestation?

Second, human activities have polluted the natural environment. People have built many factories in the rural area in order to develop the modern industry. These factories have released many toxic effluents materials into the river, the soil and the sea. This, of course, has a tremendous effect  on the earth. All the forest could be dead; many species that live on the land or underwater could get sick and die because of these poison. The industry effluents have killed million of plants, animals and fishes. Moreover, people always throw many harmful garbage like nylons into the river. If the fishes eat these nylons, they would die immediate. It is clearly that these activities have harmed the Earth very much.

Third, the world climate has greatly changed because of the human activities. Today living has produced a huge amount of poisonous gases. These gases are released by cars, factories, industrial activities… They could destroy the ozone layer, which could create a phenomenon called “the green house effect”. The green house effect cause the temperature of the Earth increases. As a result, the ice in the North and South thaw and cause the water level becomes higher. Some scientists predict that some cities nearby the sea will be submerged under the sea in a few next decades. This is one of the worst effects of human activities that damage the Earth.


Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity make the Earth a better place to live. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Human have been living on Earth for thousands of years, and human activity has big influence on the Earth. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed by human activity, while others feel that human activity make the Earth a better place to live. In my opinion, the Earth is being harmed by human activity. My arguments for this point are listed as following statements.

Human activity has damaged the natural environment and almost depleted the natural resources. Modern industry must use a lot of resources, including minerals and fuels. So we have to deal with a serious problem: lacking of natural resources. In order to solve this problem, we have to construct many new factories in the environment to exploit the minerals and fuels. As a result, ecological balances are damaged because the factories destroyed many places where animals and plants live. More and more buildings are constructed and the forests become less and less. The Earth is being damaged because of these human activities.

Another serious problem is “the green house effect”. Human activity decreases the area of forests and also increases the usage of fuels, so there’re more and more of the gas of carbon dioxide is released and there aren’t enough plants to absorb it. The green house effect is more obvious and more sensible these years. Due to this effect, icebergs in the south polar and the north polar melt and the sea level become higher than before. This phenomenon has obviously damaged the Earth very much. Some scientists predict that some cities nearby the sea will be submerged under the sea in a few next decades. I hope scientists will find an effective method to eliminate the green house effect soon.

From the above statements, we can conclude that human activity brings the Earth many damages because it destroyed the natural environment and created a bad phenomenon called “the green house effect”. I hope that people will recognize this point soon and with many ceaseless efforts, I believe that people can make the Earth become a better place to live in the future.


Main idea: Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity

question: What are human activities that were harming the earth?

1. deforestation

2. poisonous gases that are produced by chemical companies, cars, industrial activities… destroy the ozone layer (making it thinner). Which produces green house effect cause earth become warmer. As a result, the temperature of the earth increased. This thaw ice in the North and South poles, water levels

I would recommend you to read the following three articles, take notes and then rewrite it in your own words for your essay.

1./ Deforestation Facts and Details – Why Deforestation Affects Us All

By Sylvia Rolfe

The Earth’s woodlands are under a great deal of pressure. Our abundant jungles are rapidly becoming extinct due primarily to illicit activities such as gold mining, hydropower, timber harvesting, and the hunger for land. Tropical and mature forests are being damaged by the lumber and paper trade. Such deforestation facts are already known to man, so why is it the rate of forest abolition continually growing?

  • We are suffering the loss of Earth’s supreme biological reserves. The tropical rainforests once sheltered 14% of the planet’s land mass; and presently, they guard only 6% of the earth’s values.
  • Both environmentalists and experts reckon that the remaining wooded areas could be eaten and consumed in approximately less than a period of 40 years. Thousands of acres of tropical forests are lost every other second with disastrous and dilapidating consequences for both emerging and industrialized countries.
  • Experimentalists estimate that deforestation is responsible for the loss of 137 plant types, animal of various sorts, and insect species every passing day due to man’s ruthless steps. The totality equates to 50,000 losses of species’ lives per year. As the forest essentials fade away, so do many probable cures for grave and serious diseases.
  • At present, 121 recommended drugs retailed worldwide are derived from plant sources. The 25% of humankind’s pharmaceuticals also originated from the forest’s ingredients. Almost 1% of the woodland has been tested for more medicinal cure by scientists; and the rest of the promising flora offer more possibilities of cure.
  • Through rainforest deforestation, however, practically 50% of the world’s species of flora, fauna and organisms will be ruined or relentlessly jeopardized over the next years to come. The very reason why our rich nature source is being depleted of values is because of multi logging corporations, short-sighted administration and carelessly irresponsible land owners.

The deforestation facts are widely known to man and thus should be given proper action. Both government and the localities should take advantage of the offered solutions to deforestation problems. If dealt with properly, our rainforests can endow the entire population’s need for these biological reserves on a perpetual basis.

and this one:


Deforestation is clearing Earth’s forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Forests still cover about 30 percent of the world’s land area, but swaths the size of Panama are lost each and every year.

The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.

Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people’s need to provide for their families.The biggest driver of deforestation is agriculture. Farmers cut forests to provide more room for planting crops or grazing livestock. Often many small farmers will each clear a few acres to feed their families by cutting down trees and burning them in a process known as “slash and burn” agriculture.

Logging operations, which provide the world’s wood and paper products, also cut countless trees each year. Loggers, some of them acting illegally, also build roads to access more and more remote forests—which leads to further deforestation. Forests are also cut as a result of growing urban sprawl.

Not all deforestation is intentional. Some is caused by a combination of human and natural factors like wildfires and subsequent overgrazing, which may prevent the growth of young trees.

Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. Seventy percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes.

Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out. Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts.

Removing trees deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. This disruption leads to more extreme temperatures swings that can be harmful to plants and animals.

Trees also play a critical role in absorbing the greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming.

The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. Though deforestation rates have slowed a bit in recent years, financial realities make this unlikely to occur.

A more workable solution is to carefully manage forest resources by eliminating clear-cutting to make sure that forest environments remain intact. The cutting that does occur should be balanced by the planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled in any given forest. The number of new tree plantations is growing each year, but their total still equals a tiny fraction of the Earth’s forested land.

3./Deforestation -The Facts

If forests are the Earth’s lungs, Mother Nature is having a tough time breathing these days. According to the environmental organization Greenpeace, 80 percent of the planet’s ancient forests have already been destroyed or damaged and a large portion of what’s left is under threat from illegal and destructive logging. The group says an area of natural forest the size of a football field is being chopped down every two seconds. The Nature Conservancy reports that over 32 million acres of the planet’s natural forests are lost each year due to logging, much of it illegal. Forests are also being decimated by cattle grazing, agriculture, mining, oil extraction, population expansion, dams, pipelines and other infrastructure projects.

Deforestation puts the earth at risk in a number of serious ways. Among their many functions, trees and plants play an important role as climate stabilizers by removing heat-trapping greenhouse gases (including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone) from the air and holding them in their leaves, roots, wood and soil. When trees are destroyed, the greenhouse gases they’ve been hanging onto go back into the atmosphere, where they speed up global warming. Scientists predict the consequences of global warming will be wide-ranging and include an increase in floods, heat waves, droughts, wildfires, species extinction and the spread of disease. It’s estimated that 20 to 25 percent of all carbon emissions are the result of deforestation and land use changes, about the same (or even slightly higher) percentage of emissions that come from cars and trucks in the United States.

Deforestation also negatively impacts biodiversity. An estimated 70 percent of the planet’s animals and plants reside in forests; if these habitats disappear, so will many of their residents. The Nature Conservancy reports that tropical rainforests occupy only 12 percent of the globe but contain over half of the world’s known animal species and plants. If the rainforests continue to vanish at their current rate, they could be totally wiped out as functioning ecosystems within 100 years. Forests also play a key role in protecting watersheds and preventing soil erosion, flooding and landslides. Another devastating consequence of deforestation is its effect on global poverty. The World Wildlife Fund states that forest resources sustain most of the planet’s 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty, who rely on forests for their basic needs and livelihoods.

A driving force behind deforestation is money. Forest products represent a $270 billion-a-year industry, according to the World Bank. From paper to furniture to building materials, the world—particularly first-world nations—has a seemingly insatiable appetite for things made from trees. The BBC reports that “At least half of the world’s timber and nearly three-quarters of world’s paper is consumed by a mere 22% of the world’s population, those living in the United States, Europe and Japan.” While logging is regulated and practiced using sustainable methods in some parts of the globe, in other places, particularly impoverished and developing nations, logging takes place illegally and to devastating effect. According to The Nature Conservancy, “As much as 30 percent of hardwood lumber and plywood traded globally is of suspicious origin.” The group reports that in Indonesia alone, approximately 70 percent of timber exports are illegal. The problem extends beyond just those places where forests are being destroyed illegally. The Energy, Environment and Development Programme at Chatham House in London states on its Web site,, that “Consumer countries contribute to the problem by importing timber and wood products without ensuring that they are legally sourced.” Greenpeace reports that “illegal logging costs timber producing countries between $10-15 billion per year in lost revenue,” money that could be going toward vital public works projects. Additionally, unsafe working conditions and child labor have been associated with illegal logging, the profits from which have been used to fund civil wars and organized crime.

Besides logging, other big businesses contributing to deforestation are cattle ranching and farming. In South America, vast portions of rainforest have been destroyed—often by slash and burn methods—in order to create pastureland for cattle. It’s been estimated that 55 square feet of rainforest are destroyed for every quarter-pounder that comes from rainforest cows. In recent years, the Amazon rainforest has also faced rapid destruction due to increased farming of soy, which is used to feed livestock raised for fast-food chains in Europe. However, some efforts have been made to stop this trend. In 2006, after a campaign spearheaded by Greenpeace, McDonald’s pledged not to market chicken fed with soy grown in the Amazon rainforest.

Reducing deforestation is an enormous challenge that will require government regulation and cooperation on an international scale. As the world wakes up to the dangers of climate change and decides to take action, combating destruction of the planet’s forests should be an integral part of that fight.


Amazon Basin: The world’s largest rainforest is located in the 1.2 billion-acre Amazon Basin, which spans nine South American nations. The Amazon is home to an enormous array of plants and animals and it’s estimated that one square kilometer of Amazon rainforest could include over 75,000 kinds of trees. According to Greenpeace, approximately 60 to 80 percent of the logging taking place in the Amazon rainforest, 60 percent of which is located in Brazil, is illegal. reports that the Amazon is vanishing at a rate of 20,000 miles a year.

Congo Basin: Located in Central Africa, the 500 million-acre Congo Basin, which includes such nations as Cameroon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to 80 percent of Africa’s rainforests and represents one quarter of the planet’s total rainforests. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) reports that the Congo Basin contains “one of the richest concentrations of biodiversity in the world&with some 10,000 types of plants, 400 mammals and 900 varieties of butterfly.” The region is increasingly susceptible to deforestation, with 50 million hectares (1 hectare equals 2.47 acres) of rainforest controlled by logging companies, according to Greenpeace. The WWF states that “The escalating global demand for raw materials and energy from the Congo Basin means that 70 percent of the region’s forests could be lost by 2040.” Within the Congo Basin, the Democratic Republic of Congo alone contains over half of Africa’s rainforests. Greenpeace reports that by 2050, forest clearance in this economically challenged nation of almost 66 million people will release up to 34.4 billion tons of carbon dioxide, approximately the same as the United Kingdom’s total carbon dioxide emissions over the last 60 years. The destruction of the rainforests due to logging and agriculture has also made it easier for humans to venture deeper into remote areas to hunt wild animals for bushmeat. Hunting and habitat loss have caused such creatures as chimpanzees and gorillas in the Congo to become endangered.

Indonesia: An estimated 70 percent of this Southeast Asia island nation’s timber exports are illegal. Each year, “Illegal logging costs Indonesia at least $600 million in lost royalties and export taxes,” according to a 2007 Washington Post report. Additionally, the New York Times notes that “Indonesia releases more carbon dioxide through deforestation than any other country.” The Asia-Pacific region as a whole has lost 88 percent of its original frontier forest, according to, which states that “Much of the illicit timber flows across porous borders, where neighboring states often legitimize the timber by issuing paperwork to mask its true origin. Smuggling has also been documented across the region—from Indonesia to Malaysia, Singapore and China, from Cambodia to Thailand and Vietnam, and from Myanmar (Burma) to China.”

Siberia and the Russian Far East: It’s estimated that half of all logging is this region is illegal and that the forests of the Russian Far East could be wiped out within two decades, according to a 2007 report in The Washington Post. Loose government controls and corruption have made it possible for vast tracts of forest to be illegally harvested. Much of the wood is exported to China (now the world’s leading importer of forest products), where it is often turned into furniture or building materials and eventually shipped to the U.S.

Central America: While illegal logging is a problem in Central America—an estimated 70 percent of all logging in Nicaragua is illegal—the region’s population expansion in recent years has been a driving force behind deforestation. Conservation and economic development are often at odds in this poor part of the planet, where deforestation has occurred to serve subsistence purposes, including as intensified demand for fire wood and additional land for agriculture. According to, the average Central American family living below the poverty line burns 12 tons of wood annually. Deforestation also sets the stage for increased flooding and landslides in Central America’s hilly terrain.”